Contemporary pre-implant surgery cannot ignore the paradigm of a personalized, minimally invasive, reproducible and longlasting approach of medicine. Consequently, the management of maxillary and mandibular bone defects undergoes permanent changes impacting approaches and daily practice. For a long time, autologous grafts have been the technique of choice to compensate for vertical and/or horizontal substance loss, the essential prerequisite for the placement of implants - although in the meantime, new alternative procedures have developed. The use of allogeneic bone grafts currently prevails in numerous therapeutic indications. Besides, combined effects resulting from the developments of imaging, CADCAM technologies and surgical techniques allowed to optimize the prognosis and durability of results. However, new techniques must be developed in order to overcome the limitations inherent to the properties of these bone substitutes. Developments of synthetic materials, 3D printing and tissue engineering have a significant impact on current approaches and will surely modify procedures related to the treatment of maxillary and mandibular bone defects.